Before i start with my assignment i would like to mention the reasons that i chose this topic. At this point i would like to say that i admire these animals because of their strength and because of their intelligence, the ways they prey, act, and live within “families” called packs is related to ours and i find it very unique and exciting.
Gray Wolves are a category of wolves which includes the Arctic Wolf as well and the most interesting part is the one about their behavior. The Scientific of these wolves is Canus Lupus which is latin and it is related to dogs.
While their evolution they pass through many stages. In most cases they can survive out in the wild for about 10 years and in captivity for 17. This is very interesting because most animals live longer in the wild and less in captivity which means that they face a lot of difficulties throughout their survival in the nature. It is more difficult to hunt for food in their own while being in the wild than n captivity and this is the main reason that affects their life cycle.
In the age of 2 years old the female Wolf passes to the mating season in addition the male wolf mates around the age of 1. While the mating taking place one can observe the “games: that take place between the male and the female such as licking and biting. Wolves are living in groups and they also hunt together and pass their whole life within the pack. The female gives birth to 5 to 9 puppies at a time. The leader of the pack is called Alpha male and his mate alpha female.Wolves can be observe in several areas in the world and their habitat is both in The North(Tundra) and in the South(tree line) as well. Here in Greece we observe their habitat area in the mountains for example such as Mount Olympos. The Arctic Wolves themselves live in The North(Tundra) and we can observe the differences in the colors. Such as the Arctic wolves are usually white colored but sometimes black or grey colored wolves. In Greece’s Wolves for example which are most time Grey colored. The adults of the pack travel 15 to 20 miles per day in order to feed the family and themselves as well. Most times they prey using the ambush tactics because they prey most time on bigger and stronger animals so they plan their attack. Also their adaptation is very interesting because within the seasonal changes the wolf has learnt to survive using its thick foot pads, their sensitive hearing and as well their communication habits such as barks and howls that are unique for each wolf. For example a wolf can hear another one while he howls from 5 miles away.
BlundeeBrodell, (n.d). “Arctic wolf Image by blundeebrodell”. National Geographic. Available through:http://media.photobucket.com/image/arctic+wolf+/blundeebrodell/arctic-wolf-iceberg-441683-xl.jpg [Accessed 11 December 2010]
Nowadays, climate changes is the major threat of our planet according to sociological and environmental issues, and consequently water scarcity is a very crucial concern.
Personally, I have never faced drought since I was born. Except from the really hot summers I experienced, where I could see that due to really high temperatures and big lack of rain, everything around looked liked a dessert. Water scarcity is not a phenomenon that it is really obvious in Greece, until now, so we never needed to conserve amounts of water in order to live. Although, I observe that in most countries worldwide, water scarcity is a major phenomenon that affects the living, or even the surviving conditions of people.
In some places in the world, water scarcity is a way of living, and especially in desserts. People there, are used to live under these circumstances and try to survive with small amounts of water, conserving daily as big amounts of water as they can. Also, they are dressed mostly with light cloths, both in material and color, with long sleeves and many times hats or cloths are used to protect their heads from the sun. Moreover, they eat food that contains hydrate ingredients in order to supply themselves with water by several ways.
In addition, the most common dangers in these countries are heat and dehydration, so they might limit any additional physical activity for not loosing energy and become unable to meet their everyday obligations. Lastly, they try to rest as much as they can, avoiding the sweat, since it causes rise in body temperature to rise and big amounts of lost nutrients.
To sum up they follow this kind of living habits in order to survive in climates with high temperatures and water scarcity, which may have duration for more than four months.
The world’s population is increasing rapidly. According to this figure, in 2050 the world population will rise by 10 billion, and this could lead to a disaster according to water supply and economical growth. Also water availability will lower to 5.000 m3 which in my opinion will lead to the Third World War among the countries. It can possibly be the ‘‘end’’ for our planet.
On the other hand, as the population increases, water supplements decrease, and consequently, droughts, extreme weather phenomena and climate changes will created more frequently.
According to my opinion we will not be able to survive under these circumstances and our living conditions will be extremely difficult.
Coral reefs: Coral reefs are a major concern nowadays throughout the world. Some factors that affect them are pollution, fishing and most time with illegally such as with dynamite, tourism and of course the Global Climate Change. As the world population grows the request for food rises. Most times the coral reefs are visited and examined by “ecotourists”. However most times the conclusion contains extended reef damage. Scuba diving is also a matter that affects corals, while boats can damage reefs with their anchors or propels of their engines. Global climate change results in increases in sea temperature and rise of the sea levels. “Corals are very sensitive to water temperature changes, with rises in temperature resulting in coral bleaching episodes.” Lastly all of the above factors can damage coral reefs but behind all of these factors humans are involved in this damage. So we are responsible for the damage we cause and for the world climate and weather phenomena that will follow the next years.
Deep sea anglerfish: A variety of 200 different species of fish exist and most of them live in deep areas bellow the water where light cannot make it through. We observe them in Atlantic and in the Antarctic oceans, approximately a mile below the surface of the water. However some of them live in tropical environments. The female will give birth to more than 6 fish. Also the fish itself has a part on its body that some of us may consider that seems like an antenna. The truth is that this specific fish uses it as a lure in order to catch smaller fish. They have a wide mouth that helps them swallow their food.
A rise of global temperatures can melt the world’s glaciers and ice caps. We are observers of this kind of phenomena nowadays where most of the arctic life in poles seem to have problems not only with survival but also with the big mountains made of ice which melt and are destroyed. If this continues to happen we will sea a sufficient rise of the sea level which will eventually harm most of us in survival and economic problems as well. In the “beginning in the 1960s, several glacier experts warned that part of the Antarctic ice sheet seemed unstable. If the huge mass slid into the ocean, the rise of sea level would wreak great harm, perhaps within the next century or two. While that seemed unlikely (although not impossible), by the 1980s scientists realized that global warming would probably raise sea level enough to damage populous coastal regions. Rising global temperatures make the sea warmer.” If we don’t stop immediately to pollute the planet and we do not take extreme measures most of the living species of erath will disappear. Also the chain will break and will affect most of us. Viruses will expand due to high temperatures which help them spread and we will be facing extreme weather phenomena as well. According to the article the “The largest remaining piece of one of the largest icebergs ever observed began to crumble on October 28, 2005”. Some extreme measures must be taken in order to save what is left or else…
Azeem, K.A., (2006). “Consequences Of Polar Ice Melting & Rising Sea Levels” Available Through: http://abdulazeem.wordpress.com/2006/11/03/consequences-of-polar-ice-melting-rising-sea-levels/ [Accessed 10 December 2010]
Latitude: 40ο 59’04.88’’ Β
Longitude: 22ο 95’87.06” E
This is a picture of my house (via Google Earth):
A photo of Aristotelous square ( via Google Earth):
Latitude: 40ο37’57.41” B
Longitude: 22ο56’28.42” A
My city has temperate forest latitude and atmospheric circulations.Furthermore Thessaloniki has Mediterranean climate as well as the rest of the Greek territory which is well known for its hot-dry summers and the mild-rainy winters and is more like Sweden climate as they say, and it is found between 30ο and 40ο latitude.
Calculation and Comparison of Ecological Footprintsand GDP
|Country||Ecological Footprint (EF) (hectares per person)||Proportion relative to world average||Proportion relative to world area available||Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita –(in PPP dollar)
(obtain these data from Globalis)
|United Arab Emirates||9.9||4.43||5.56||N/D|
|World Average||2.23||1.0(2.23/2.23)||1.25(2.23/1.78)||leave this cell empty|
|Costa Rica (Americas)||2.1||0.94||1.17||8.840|
|Your personal footprint||2.52||1.13||1.41||leave this cell empty|
“There are a lot of differentiations that can be observed between United States’ ecological footprint and Bangladeshs’ EF. That is related to the University of Iowa “Ecological footprints measure the average area of land necessary to sustain an individual in a particular country. The footprint gauges human demand on the environment by calculating the consumption of natural resources vis a vis the earth’s ability to regenerate those same resources. A large footprint denotes a country/population that emits heavy environmental stress whereas a small footprint denotes a country/population that harms the environment to a lesser extent to sustain itself. The footprint is figured by totaling the amount of gasoline, electricity, meat, processed food, public transportation, and other environment related indicators that an average person consumes on a daily basis. Based on these determinants, the USA produces the world’s largest ecological footprint (9.8 hectares or 24.2 acres), while Bangladesh produces the world’s smallest footprint (.5 hectare or 1.2 acres). Evidence of Bangladesh’s small footprint is strikingly visible when one considers that they are able to sustain the lives of 150 million people (half the population of America) in the size of one of America’s states (Iowa) with little natural resource endowment.”Juran (2003)
Also the higher the ecological footprint the higher the GDP as well, is comparison with the EF of the countries with lower GDP. By following my ecological footprint, came out that it is almost the average 2.52. In Greece the ecologic footprint is 5.4, which means that I have to be more conscious when it comes to ecology according to the majority of the people that live in Greece. However, mine ecological footprint with Bangladeshs’, have a lot of differences because in Bangladesh people seem to be more informed and conscious than in Greece due to the high levels of air and land pollution that we have nowadays. This phenomenon is developed by the people that live in Greece. Most of us pollute the environment every day by using our cars because most of the Greek families seem to own more than 2 cars. As well the air pollution and the fumes that we “produce” as a country bring us to the top ten of the most Polluted European Countries. Furthermore the same amount of ef is devoted to Mexico as well with an average of 2.6 and to the world’s average 2.23. Nevertheless, Spain with 4.8, United States with 9.5 and Unites Arab Emirates with 9.9. These contries have higher ecological footprint. In order to prevent the destruction of my country and as a result the whole planet I can recycle more (paper, electrical appliances, plastic, glass etc.). Also, I can save much more water, using less in the bath and for flashing the toilette, washing the dishes. I can lower the disposal of pressurized cans (spray paint, hair lack, anti-bug sprays etc.) and last but not least i can save more money and prevent the pollution as well by thinking and acting “GREEN”. I believe that this assignment can provide me with such knowledge that i can use for myself and others in order to become more conscious and more “ecologist” in ways that will effect and affect my and my next generation living and in order to make them better, more comfortable and more easier for their survival and mine as well.
Google earth, (2010).
Juran, L., (2003). Geographic alliance of Iowa. Bangladesh’s Ecologic footprint. Metcalfe.( http://www.uni.edu/gai/Bangladesh/BackgroundInformation/BangladeshsEcologicalFootprint.htm)
- The reason why I m posting this data below is in order to inform you about the differences among societies. Population data changes every year. Most populations are stable and some of them have a positive decline. One can observe a total decrease of the increases on population nowadays. In some other continents the death and birth rate are equal. In most cases there is a stable situation. Further more with some crutial events that are taking place such as extreme weather phenomena and the economic crisis seized the whole planet and in most cases there is such a decline in population under these circumstances.
- China and India have the largest populations in the world. Which of these two countries adds more people to its population annually? [Calculate the numbers added by applying the rate of natural increase to the population of each country. Hint: the rate is a percent]
|Country||Number of people added annually|
- What proportion of the world’s people live the following continents/regions and what are the projected proportions by 2025 and 2050?
|Continent||% living today(millions)||% by 2025(millions)||% by 2050(millions)|
The proportion of the world’s people who live now in Asia is 0,603%. By 2025 the percentage will decrease to 0,59 furthermore by 2050 the percentage will also decrease to 0,57. For example North America has a population rate of 0,049%. By 2025 the percentage will decrease only to 0,048%, however in 2050 the percentage will be the same as it is today, 0,049%. Latin America, the proportion of the world’s people who live today is 0,084%, by 2025 the percentage will decrease to 0,082% by 2050 the percentage will also decrease to 0,076%. Oceania has a proportion of 0.005368%. By 2025 the percentage will increase to 0.00555% and also by 2050 it will increase to 0.006114%. Finally Europe has a proportion of 0,107%. By 2025 the percentage will decrease to 0,092% and by 2050 the percentage will decrease to 0,075%.
- What trends are reflected in the bar chart?
- As you can observe in the chart shown above the proportion of the world’s people who live now in Asia is 0,603%. By 2025 the percentage will decrease to 0,59 furthermore by 2050 the percentage will also decrease to 0,57. For example North America has a population rate of 0,049%. By 2025 the percentage will decrease only to 0,048%, however in 2050 the percentage will be the same as it is today, 0,049%. Latin America, the proportion of the world’s people who live today is 0,084%, by 2025 the percentage will decrease to 0,082% by 2050 the percentage will also decrease to 0,076%. Oceania has a proportion of 0.005368%. By 2025 the percentage will increase to 0.00555% and also by 2050 it will increase to 0.006114%. Finally Europe has a proportion of 0,107%. By 2025 the percentage will decrease to 0,092% and by 2050 the percentage will decrease to 0,075%. To sum up in a few words the chart shows us the increase or the decrease on the world’s proportion for the current year for 2025 and for 2050.
- What proportion of the world’s people live in less developed countries (LDCs) and in more developed countries (MDCs) today? What proportion is projected to live in MDCs in 2025 and in 2050?
|Countries||% of world’s population today||% of world’s population in 2025||% of world’s population in 2050|
Discuss with your partner a) the economic and b) the social implications of the changing proportions of the world’s people in LDCs and MDCs. Record your observations.
- LDC countries have a population of 0.82% and it will decrease in 2025 to 0.84% and it will increase in 2050 to 0.86%. The fact that nowadays the population in these countries is decreased is a result that people who are living in LDCs are more likely to move to MDCs. This is happening, because the opportunities in LDC are less and this occurs because of the low income. This is why we have so much population today in MDCs (0.179%) people believe that in places that there are more opportunities it is more easier for us to make profit and live better. However, it is obvious that in 2025 and 2050 the population in LDCs will be increased, but the population in MDCs will be decreased. This phenomenon can happen because in most countries we can see a decline in the economic growth and some of the MDC will become 2050’s LDC. To sum up in most cases people will return to LDC countries because life in MDC is more demanding and not only about development. The rhythm of life and the speed of growth needs followers and probably most of us maybe not have the opportunity to follow and we maybe live in a future LDC and probably don’t even know it.
- Examine the crude birth rate, crude death rate, and rate of natural increase of any three countries (one being your own country) listed on the World Population Data Sheet.
|Country||Crude birth rate||Crude death rate||Rate of natural increase|
Discuss with your group partner the mathematical relationship among these three rates. Record your observations.
- The crude birth rate in Greece is 11%. The crude death rate also is 10% and the rate of natural increase is 0.1%.
- The crude birth rate in Columbia is 20%. The crude death rate is 6% and the rate of natural increase is 1.4%.
- The crude birth rate in Netherlands is 11%. The crude death rate is 8% and the rate of natural increase is 0.3%.
- Select 2 LDCs and 2 MDCs from the data sheet and compute the age-dependency ratios for each. Discuss with your group the implications of your observations:
- What factors do you think contribute to a high age-dependency ratio?
Factors like Economic, Environmental, are most common factors that can affect the age dependency ratio and have an impact on it because without economy people cannot survive nowadays. Furthermore another factor mentioned above is the environment. Extreme weather phenomena changes in climate and several others affect both economy or affect directly the age dependecy ratio.
- What are some economic and social consequences of a high age-dependency ratio?
High dependency ratio causes countries to lose money. Most people after 50 cannot work so they have problems of how to survive. Each country provides them some money for the retirement for their basic needs so high dependency ratio countries are more common to this phenomenon.
- Construction of an age sex.
|Column A||Column B|
|Census BureauUnited Kingdom|
|Midyear population (in thousands)||62,348||58,187||60,487||64,088||67,244|
|Growth rate (percent)||0.6||0.3||0.6||0.5||0.4|
|Total fertility rate (births per woman)||1.9||1.7||1.8||1.9||1.8|
|Crude birth rate (per 1,000 population)||12||13||12||12||11|
|Births (in thousands)||769||732||723||780||761|
|Life expectancy at birth (years)||80||77||79||81||82|
|Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 births)||5||6||5||4||4|
|Under 5 mortality rate (per 1,000 births)||6||7||6||5||5|
|Crude death rate (per 1,000 population)||9||11||10||9||10|
|Deaths (in thousands)||582||645||583||599||654|
|Net migration rate (per 1,000 population)||3||1||3||3||2|
|Net number of migrants (in thousands)||163||75||205||163||163|
Table 1 . (http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php)
Demographic Indications for United Kingdom
|Total midyear population||62.3|
|Birth Rate (per 1,000)||12.34|
|Death Rate (per 1,000)||9.33|
|Natural Increase (%)||0.3|
|Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births)||4.7|
|Total Fertility Rate||1.9|
|Life Expectancy at Birth for males||77.84|
|Life Expectancy at Birth for females||82.11|
The left side on the pyramid is the male population and the right side, the female population. At the bottom of the pyramid the percent of the population is represented. Population pyramids reveal very specific and informative data about populations. Populations of countries differ.
Compare the demographic variables and the pyramid for the country. How does the pyramid reflect the variables?
We chose from Colum A United Kingdom in order to find out the differences in the quality of life in this country. More specific, the total midyear population is 62,3. The Birth Rate is 12,34.
The Death Rate is 9,33.
United Kingdom Demographics 2010
United Kingdom Demographics 2025
United Kingdom Demographics 2050
Characterize the level of development in the country—high, medium, low? Use two specific examples from Table 2 and your pyramid to support the decision about level of development.
The ratio of development in United Kingdom is more than 2%, because the Birth Rate which is12.34 is higher than the Death Rate which is 9.33%. As we can see from the population death rate and birth rate are most times equal with a small increase in male death rate and we can observe it from the rates which are the Life Expectancy Birth rate for males is 77.84 and the Life Expectancy at Birth rate for females is 82.11.
The infant mortality rate is 4.7. However, the total Fertility Rate is 1.9.
On this online article Simmons addresses the 5 deadliest phenomena that can be cause due to Global warming. He mentions that “Green house gases stay can stay in the atmosphere for an amount of years ranging from decades to hundreds and thousands of years” which means that every measures that can be taken cannot have much effect in order to avoid extreme phenomena. Firstly he analyze the matter of disease spreads in the world through insects and the case of eradication of malaria.
Secondly he discusses the proportion of water nowadays which is one of the causes of extreme weather phenomena such as hurricanes. According to his article in the third place he covers the subject of droughts and heat waves by mentioning that areas of the planet will become wetter and other will face extreme droughts and heat waves due to Global warming. Last but not least he mentions several Economic sequences that will take place due to disasters that are caused and their effect on worlds Economy. Finally according to his article he mentions that the melting of polar ice caps will raise the sea levels which will not only cause the imbalance of the global Ecosystem but also will endanger several species of animals. To sum up if polar ice caps melt a lot of the heat that is reflected back to space will be absorbed due to oceans that attract more heat due to darker colours that are caused by the depth of the oceans.
I believe that this website covers a wide range of environmental information that can be used in order to complete my assignment. Everything that takes place nowadays is searchable and can be kept up to date through the authors of this website.
Simmons, 2009. “5 Deadliest effects of global warming”, Available through: Environmental Graffiti [Accessed at: 6 November 2010] http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/sciencetech/5-deadliest-effects-of-global-warming/276
The subject that i am going to analyze and present in class will be “Global warming and its impact on weather conditions and populations”. Also i m going to analyze and discuss several phenomenon that take place due to Global warming such as interactions that take place in land, water and climate. Some of them are floods that take place nowadays which is a phenomenon that is crutial all over the world, Desertification of areas, and tornados or other extreme weather phenomena. I believe that all of us know the basics according to this topic but i would like to penetrate to this and give further information in order to analyze, discuss and understand thoroughly the matter. Most people probably have their own view about this subject and are informed through several medium of communication or articles through the internet. I would like to address some criteria that maybe useful in order to be informed from a more accurate point of view. In addition most of us do not understand the importance of Global warming and how crutial these phenomena could be nowadays. I believe that this is something that will affect all of us and its an opportunity for me and for all of you to be informed and be kept up to date about several matters that happen in our planet.
In this post i would like to discuss the term “Ecological Footprint” which is used in order to help us culculate the humanities demand on Earths Ecosystems. The puprose why i m writing this srticle is moslty because i would like to address the wide varieties of Diets used in order to survive. I believe that this is the easiest way to calculate the calories used in our diet and to realize the amounts of calories that defer between vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets consumed annually. I would like to define the term Ecological Footprint based on an e-article which mentions that we can also suggest that an Ecological Footprint is also an Environmental Footprint in other words. “Also it is a measure of the load imposed by a given population on nature. It represents the area of the Earth’s surface necessary to sustain levels of resource consumption and waste discharge by that population”. (Evfit, 2009).
“In ecological systems energy flows from producers to consumers. As we discussed in class, the producers on land are mainly photosynthetic plants. Fig. 1 below shows the flow of nutrients from producers (plants) to primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. Food contains nutrients which are potential energy for living organisms. Flow of nutrients therefore, translates into flow of energy. In ecological systems, a rough rule of thumb is that when energy is transferred from plants to plant-eaters or from pray to predator, the efficiency is only 10%.”
At this point i would like to present some pictures i found interesting besides the ones we observed in order to understand the matter in class assignment.
Pic. 1 ( Energy Flow Through The Ecosystem)
Pic.2 (Energy flow & material cycles)